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Summary report on 22nd WAIGANI SEMINAR - PNG

August 27-30, 1997 and September 1-3, 1997 Workshops
Dr. John Evans
South Pacific Centre for Communication and Information in Development (SP­CenCIID)
University of Papua New Guinea


1. Acknowledgments ...2

2. Administrative Report ...3

3. Basic Details ...7

4. Background to the Seminar ...8

5. Background Statement on Universal Access to Basic Communication and Information Services - UN ACC ...13

6. Examples of ICT applications listed by the UN Commission for Science and Technology in Development ...20

7. Report on issues raised at the Waigani Seminar as endorsed by Participants at the Closing Session ...22

8. INFORM PNG A proposal for an NGO concerned with information and its communication in PNG ...28

9. Seminar Programme ...29

10. Workshops held in association with the seminar ...34

1. Acknowledgments

Thanks to the following persons and groups were given by Rhonda Eva at the close of the Seminar:-


  • The University of PNG
  • UNDP
  • Computers and Communications
  • Datec
  • EnerTec

Speakers and Chairpersons

The Acting Minister of Education

The Vice Minister of Education

MP for Port Moresby South

Leader of the Opposition

- to all speakers for their time, effort and ideas especially those who had to travel to the venue.

-to all Chairs for coping with the variable nature of the schedules

-to FCA staff and students for performances and "visual" communications.


- to all members of the Organising Committee and to the Academic Board for its support of the Seminar theme and programme.


- to the Administrative Officer - Cynthia Kosarko

- to Kay Nicol, Dimas Belik, Peter Ivo and the LISSA students - Jeffrey Kapata, Jarius Yetigo and Benjamin Ketapi.

- to Ravu Geno for A/V Services

- to Trust Accounts staff for efficient handling of funds

- to Buildings and Estates Staff for ensuring that the MLT was both well lit and decorated.

and of course thanks to all the Participants of the 22nd Waigani Seminar

2. Administrative Report

2.1. Organisational Difficulties

The approach adopted limited the number of meetings and time spent on fund raising, both major consumers of effort. It was an attempt to provide an appropriate response to the topic given there were many other things to do. It was also possible to arrange events so as to generate a number of spin offs and associated activities in addition to the Seminar itself.

The Committee, being small, worked very well with an estimated maximum of 30 person hours being involved in direct meetings. A competent Administrative Officer assisted immensely.

Comments have come in about insufficient advertisement for this Seminar - a result of limited funds. However, individual letters had gone out to all government departments, all provincial administrations, and most NGO’s, in addition to all those who the Committee thought might be interested in the event. Advertisement should have included banners and posters. Delays at the Printery caused problems in providing feedback forms in time for the meeting. The road works outside the university did not help matters.

Scheduling was a problem and some speakers required more time (National Museum). The introduction of speakers and provision of materials to allow a synopsis by the Chairs required more attention. This Seminar did attempt to do the job within three rather than the five days normally used.

2.2. Budget

The budget was adequate and a detailed breakdown will be appended when figures have all come in, this is likely to show neither surplus or deficit.

2.3. Quality of Presentations

Despite the wide ranging nature of the subject matter papers were of a high standard. Dr. Wijasuriya, who has long experience of UNESCO meetings and meetings of IFLA, indicated that he considered the papers here to be better than much related material he had heard in international gatherings. Andrew Treloar, a visitor from Deakin University also commented favorably on "high powered" presentations.

From experience of other meetings on this broad topic it would appear that material presented here compares favourably to those very expensive exercises. All papers will be made available on the Internet for international comment.

2.4 Press Coverage

Coverage included articles in the three local newspapers, interviews and public service announcements on EM-TV and taped interviews on NAU-FM. Background information on the Seminar was provided and recent topical speeches such as those of Kofi Annan speaking at the Global Knowledge for Development Seminar and Nelson Mandela at Telicom 96. We distributed copies of presentations made at the Seminar which have been quoted extensively in the papers. Rhonda Eva and Stephen Winduo appeared on the EM-TV "Mind and Body" show and Prof. Nekitel is to appear in October to deal with his own Waigani Seminar topic. Sit-down interviews were also conducted in the offices and studios of The National, Post-Courier and NAU-FM. NAU-FM ran the interviews in their news slot at least three times.

Paid "Public Announcements" of the Seminar appeared in the classified section of the three local newspapers (PC 21st August). The National (August 22) and The Independent (August 22) graciously expanded the size of the Public Notice at no additional cost. A full page advert of the Seminar programme appeared in the Post-Courier on 27th August courtesy of Datec and EnerTec.

The following indicates some of the material published:-

Seminar to focus on information - National August 12 p. 7

Waigani Seminar at Uni today - National August 27 p. 6

Urgent need to invest in the information sector - National August 28, p. 6

Indigenous knowledge a living treasure - Waiko - - National August 28, p. 6

Today’s program - National August 29, p. 5

Knowledge the means to overcome poverty - National August 29, p. 5

Technology empowers small groups, individuals - National August 29, p. 5

Write in local languages - Nekitel - National August 29, p. 5

Sound policies on IT needed - National September 3, p. 6

Staff training in information systems vital - National September 3, p. 6

In addition to earlier publicity about the seminar to the campus community, a full page public announcement and later a full programme agenda appeared in TUTW. A flyer was widely distributed by staff and students.

2.5 Attendance by Audience

Estimated at 500-600 overall, this is based on the number of programmes distributed, as there were no feedback forms until day 3.

2.6. Attendance by Speakers

There were 55 speakers / chairpersons - 5 from overseas. The Seminar attracted four members of Government as speakers. All UPNG Faculties contributed speakers as did Unitech, Institute of PNG Studies, National Museum, Melanesian Institute. There was a strong showing from Government Departments particularly on Friday morning. Private sector participation was also good on the Friday sessions. Government and private participation in the issue will increase when the Telikom sponsored conference is held.

Funding / implementing agencies such as World Bank, UNDP, Department of Planning and Implementation fully participated and attended.

NGO participation was poor and it is hoped to run a separate workshop with them with sufficient funds to secure participation. Letters received showed that funding was a real constraint for this group as well as provincial units.

There were some no-shows usually as a result of funding or travel difficulties. C E P Val Hayes, for example, gave his a paper a week later than scheduled at a separate seminar!

2.7. Associated Functions

1 Official Reception

2 Performances FCA - Audience 200 +

1 Visual Arts Display - 3 days

1 Demonstration Solar Power - Rural Schools - Visitors 300 +

2 Film shows - Estimated attendance - 250

1 Public Lecture - Taholo Kami - Attendance - 120

1 Seminar - Val Haynes - 25-30 participants

1 Workshop - Crowl - 30 participants over 1 day

1 Workshop - Tankha - 5 participants - 2 hours

1 Workshop - Treloar - 10 participants - .5 day

1 Workshop - Wijasuriya - 45 participants for 3 days

1 Sales Point UPNG/ USP Books - Sales - K1400

2.8. Other spin offs

Curriculum review was assisted at SPCenCIID / Department of Language and Literature

A possible information NGO was discussed and the idea has received further support subsequently from members of NANGO PNG.

Agency arrangements were arranged between Institute of Pacific Studies / UPNG Press which should increase availability and reduce cost of Pacific publications.

Staff development activities were possible via the workshops

The period allowed for implementation of activities under UNESCO APINESS and KESISU projects

Time allowed for the development of a Research Agenda for LIS and assisted in the revival of PNGLA

Seminar allowed for new members of SPCenCIID Board of Studies to be recruited

Allowed further discussion of the setting up of an Indigenous Knowledge Centre under the global network being developed by NUFFIC. They have already been in touch requesting details of the presentations.

Contacts for potential further projects were made.

Participation in PAN Asia Virtual Conference will provide useful experience for staff here and global exposure to papers.

IDRC staff will be visiting to discuss a cintent project for PNG in mid- November.

Issues not discussed will be covered in Telikom organised Conference on NII now due for February 1988.

2.9 Resolving problems for future Waigani seminars

It would assist if a set of guidelines and a check list for the Waigani Seminar (and indeed other similar events held at the university) were adopted. The UNESCO Unisist Guidelines could be considered for adoption.

As the Seminar Committees alter between seminar it would be useful if a group of support staff could be trained up in issues relating to workshops, seminars and conferences. This is potentially and useful area of business for the university, but efficiency will suffer (especially when compared to the competion) if each event is treated as an as-hoc event without adequate support staff.

3. Basic Details

Seminar Theme - "To know and be known" - As the first World Science Report 1993 of UNESCO points out the gap between rich and poor countries today is not so much a resource gap as it is a knowledge gap.

Seminar Goals - • To provide a forum for discussion on the role of information in PNG, noting both the role of indigenous knowledge as well as the potential of recent developments in information and communication technology.

• To reflect on improving social aspects of the information and the communication of information

• To refine and discuss the issues that will require consideration for the improvement of the National Information Infrastructure

Seminar Content: - Indigenous Knowledge and Communication; Developing National Information Systems; Oral History and Recording Local History; Publishing - local and regional; Telecommunication Sector; Information and Communication Technology Developments; Sectoral Case Studies; Human Resources; Information Skills; Issues and Concerns about Information and Papua New Guinea

Target Audience - Open free to all interested persons - Attendance was over 500 over the period with 200 attending film shows

Seminar Organising Committee

Appointed by Academic Board:-

John Evans, SPCenCIID, Chair

Rhonda Eva, SPCenCIID, Deputy Chair

Prof. Otto Nekitel, Language and Literature

Jerry Tamate, Chemistry

Co-opted:- Denis Crowdy, Creative Arts

Ken Ross, Medicine

Yoli Tom’tavala, Law

Tom Wagner, Geology

Report Drafting Committee

John Evans, SPCenCIID, Chair

Rhonda Eva, SPCenCIID, Deputy Chair

Prof. Otto Nekitel, Language and Literature

Jerry Tamate, Chemistry

Administrative Officer - Cynthia Kosarko

4. Background to the Seminar

Timeliness of the topic

The Waigani Seminars have dealt with numerous issues over their history and in continuing this tradition this seminar covers an issue that is timely and potentially very productive.

In late June a consortium of some 40 donor agencies held a meeting in Toronto, Canada on the subject of Global Knowledge for Development. This saw some 2000 delegates from 120 countries discuss issues similar to those to be discussed - in much more modest circumstances- at the Waigani Seminar. The World Bank conducted a virtual conference on Knowledge Assessment in the Pacific Islands ending 29th August.

It is unthinkable that such events would have been held a few years ago, when information was an eclectic subject and certainly not a issue thought of in the context of development. It is even more unthinkable that Presidents of nations; corporations; senior figures of inter governmental agencies and NGO’s would speak so forcefully about information issues. Instead of the fog of "hype" that used to surround the issue, workable projects and valuable networks now exist - see section 5 for further details. Considerable experience has been gained.

Impact of Information and Communication Technology

What has changed? The difference is the overwhelming impact of the Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs). These are seen to be an engine for economic growth, for creating development opportunities, and for the creation of new business and thus jobs. In all of this the resource is not oil, gold, or timber. The resource is information and the technologies that now allow the delivery of this information to potentially anyone, anywhere.

As the secretary General of the UN, Kofi Annan stated at that Toronto meeting"-

"The great democratising power of information has given us the chance to bring about change and alleviate poverty in ways we cannot imagine. With information on our side, with knowledge a potential for all, the path to poverty can be reversed."

In this regard it is interesting to note that UPNG has decided to give teaching computing and information technology a high priority. Opening of two new computer teaching labs in the University this year has helped to bring the computer to most of our graduating students. This trend must be continued so that all PNG graduates can move seamlessly into the workforce where these technologies are already widely accepted.

Traditional knowledge

The initial focus at this Waigani Seminar is on traditional knowledge, and this comes before discussion of ICT and the rest. It is realised that knowledge is not the prerogative of rich or of advanced post-industrial societies.

It is accepted, in some circles, to think of the millions of the poor in their endeavours as backward ignorant people. But it is apparent that these groups possess considerable and critical knowledge of their own conditions. Without such knowledge they would not be able to survive in the difficult conditions in which they live. Knowledge is as important for them as it is for a computer expert. As the President of the International Fund for Agricultural Development states:-

"The problem has been that the traditional knowledge has remained fragmented and has not been enhanced by cross-fertilization of experiences or systematic efforts for upgrading. Village communities trying to tackle a particular problem have little access to the experiences of other communities, even those nearby, who perhaps have addressed and overcome similar problems. In order for knowledge to become a more powerful force to help millions of rural poor work their way out of poverty, two things are required. First, the poor need access to experience and knowledge of comparable communities . Secondly, this knowledge needs to be sharpened by access to outside knowledge, but in ways that would enable them to choose for themselves the external knowledge most suitable for their needs."

The thing about the technology is that it means that these comparable communities may be thousands of miles apart - other mountainous areas for example, and that communication can be direct. Here are many examples of E-mail links between classrooms across the world in solution of projects and in direct exchanges amongst the global NGO community. The question of an Indigenous Knowledge Centre to be set up at UPNG is one of the things to be discussed at the Seminar.

The second day of the seminar relates to the publication and how that can be increased in respect of Papua New Guinea material. Print and electronic sources will only be used if people can relate to them and this will mean generation of far more local content is in a variety of formats. Sectoral sessions at the seminar could lead to the consideration of information solutions being applied in these sectors - something not common in this country.

The third day of the Seminar turns to human resources and to ICT issues nationally and regionally. ICT has tremendous potential in the area of education and our existing systems will need to change radically if we are to benefit.

National Information Infrastructure

Statistics from the International Telecommunications Union show that the 5.6 billion of us on the planet in 1994 possessed some 1.16 billion television sets and 645 million telephone lines. In the same year 27 million individuals were hooked to the Internet. The problem is that 10% of the world population own 40% of the televisions, 45% of the telephone lines and 98% of the Internet access sites.

The issue of development of the National Information Infrastructure is to be the subject of a second seminar to be hosted by Telikom. This was originally scheduled to directly come after the Waigani Seminar but it has been delayed. Issues raised there will compliment rather than overlap those discussed here.

This Waigani Seminar concentrates on the people side of information development - and of course people need to come first. Technological developments and designs need to be determined by our social and cultural conditions and this is certainly enough of a task for this seminar and for subsidiary workshops.

Responsibilities of Governments in creating an informed society

Steps have to be systematically taken in order to raise the awareness of the entire society about the importance of information, and to prepare it for entering the information age. This may be reached through a broad-based societal dialogue on the theme of the Information Society its inherent opportunities and its underlying challenges.

The project requires an efficient organization, a meticulous selection of the themes to be addressed, a coordinated and well planned implementation process. Also required are sufficient material and human resources, and, more especially, the existence of political will on the part of the decision makers. This is how society can efficiently cope with the cultural dimension of the technology transfer triggered by the advent of the information age.

Steps are needed to set up country-wide horizontal and vertical telecommunication infrastructures as well as to make energy available in the entire country.

The computer will be needed at all educational levels, from school to university level, as well as in research centres, production and management centres, and libraries. National networks and sectoral sub networks will be needed.

Information infrastructure in PNG must be provided at a cost which will allow schools, universities and research institutions to access information at a cost they can afford. Unfortunately current pricing policies are making the technology too expensive for most users. I hope to initiate discussions to reduce costs for these important developmental institutions so that information becomes more readily available to all Papua New Guineans.

Education reform

Most educational systems have proven to be completely out of step with the labour market needs and the pace of development of new knowledge. Not only do we need to forge a new perception and devise novel methods, but we also need badly an integrated approach that combines both work and education through the concept of lifelong education that sets as its prime target the goal of teaching how to learn in the information society : learn how to think, decide, create and act efficiently.

There is a pressing need for new strategies of training trainers and a new perception of relations between school and life, school and family, pupil and school, particularly in the perspective of a possible implosion or fragmentation of the school structure as a result of the extensive evolution of digital networks. Interactive education (through television or computer) is a path worth exploring owing to the possibilities it offers in terms of knowledge sharing and cost-effectiveness.

Reforming educational systems is inevitable, indeed vital because the conventional systems serve only to generate out-of-step personnel, doomed to unemployment and inefficiency. It is also important to bear in mind that in a world undergoing such rapid developments, it is no longer possible to foresee what professional skills will be needed by our children in some twenty years to come.

To teach them how to learn, think, act and interact will endow them with the capacity of adaptability required for finding a niche in a rapidly and perpetually changing society. Let us not forget that rapid change has itself become a strong selection criterion.

To quote from President Mandela at the opening ceremony of Telecom 95, on our responsibilities to young people:-

"I would wish to emphasize the importance of young people to the information revolution. Many of us here today spent much of our lives without access to telecommunications or information services., and many of us will not live to see the flowering of the information age. But our children will. They are our greatest asset. And it is our responsibility to give them the skills and insight to build the information societies of the future.

The young people of the world must be empowered to participate in the building of the information age. They must become the citizens of the global information society. And we must create the best conditions for their participation."

It is important that the human resource issue is discussed at seminars such as this and that positive improvements come about - not the least at the tertiary level.

Failure of education reform is sure to reflect adversely on other sectoral policies, rendering them inappropriate and inefficient. Conducted in a sustained manner, the reforms geared to improve productivity may generate the financial resources vital for increasing national wealth necessary to pay for the subsequent cycles of improvement.

The development of scientific research and R&D is the only way for any country to contribute to building up the edifice of collective, universal knowledge. No one can boast of mastering knowledge if one does not actually participate in the important act of producing it; this is a must in default of which the developing countries will find themselves more excluded and marginalized than they are today.


As with all opportunities, the growing importance of information technology is not without risk. just as literacy created a new social class and a new form of economic privilege, information and communication technology threatens to do the same.

In addition, ICT has accelerated the conversion of knowledge into a marketable commodity, just as goods and services. Those who are able to exploit the power of ICT will have a significant advantage over those who cannot. The knowledge poor, like those left behind in the literacy revolution, may become increasingly marginalized, unconnected to global change. This knowledge gap has important implications for global sustainable development. Inequities not only constitute a drag on economic growth, they also undermine social stability, with consequences that often go beyond national borders.

Discussions at the seminar are meant to help the country to gain the best possible advantage from the new technologies while maintaining its proud heritage of diversity. This will be possible if we take adequate stock of what we have and discuss openly and comprehensively a future that will allow us to make more effective use of both our own knowledge as Papua New Guineans and the information we need to use from outside networks and sources.

As has been remarked oftentimes if you have doubts about education - try ignorance.

5. Background Statement on Universal Access to Basic Communication and Information Services - UN ACC

The world is in the midst of a communication and information revolution, complemented by an explosive growth in knowledge. Information and knowledge have become a factor sui generis in societal and economic development. As generic technologies, information and communication technologies (ICT) permeate and cut across all areas of economic, social, cultural and political activity. In the process they affect all social institutions, perceptions and thought processes. Globally the information and communication sector is already expanding at twice the rate of the world economy. Decreasing costs of increasingly powerful, reliable hardware and software, as well as the fact that much hardware has become a desktop item, will continue to drive the use of information and communication technologies, facilitating access by ever wider segments of society. But this tendency can have profound benefits only if gains in physical access are accompanied by capacities to exploit these technologies for individual and societal development through production and dissemination of appropriate content and applications.

The communication and information revolution opens up entirely new vistas for the organizations of the United Nations system; it will bring about a dramatic shift not only in the way our organizations will operate in the future, deliver services and products, but also collaborate and interact with each other and other actors. Indeed, the multilateral system as a whole - and specifically development cooperation - has reached a threshold where our future orientations, Strategies and activities have to be revisited and adjusted to the new circumstances and opportunities. We are resolved to respond readily and effectively to these new challenges.

We recognize that knowledge and information:

- represent the life blood of the emerging global information society and its attendant infrastructure:

- are the principal resources of the burgeoning information economy;

- are at the heart of the intensifying globalisation trends -and drive the emergence of a tele-economy with new global and societal organizational models (telework, telecommuting, teleservices, telemedicine, distance education, teletraining, teleshopping, telebanking, business facilitation, trade efficiency, trade information etc. In many instances, physical location is becoming irrelevant for the ability to receive or deliver products and services:

- will increasingly affect the international division of labour, determine the competitiveness of corporations and national economies and generate new growth patterns and paradigms: and

- will have strategic consequences for the global power constellation. Knowledge, more than ever, is power. Information about what is occurring becomes a central commodity of international relations and determines the

efficiency and effectiveness of any intervention which is a particular challenge for multilateral actors.

Information is not a free good. Comparative advantages are henceforth expressed in the ability of countries to acquire, organize, retrieve and disseminate information through communication, information processing technologies and complex information networks to support policy making and the development process. Abilities in these areas may allow the prevention and resolution of regional and other conflicts or deal with new challenges like international crime, terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and environmental damage by charting better informed decisions - all of which are of utmost concern to the organizations of the United Nations system.

We are profoundly concerned at the deepening mal-distribution of access to resources and opportunities in the information and communication field. The information and technology gap and related inequities between industrialized and developing nations are widening: a new type of poverty - information poverty -looms. Most developing countries, especially the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are not sharing in the communication revolution lacking as they do:-

- affordable access to core information resources, cutting-edge technology and to sophisticated telecommunication systems and infrastructures

- the capacity to build, operate, manage, and service the technologies involved; -

-policies that promote equitable public participation in the information society as both producers and consumers of information and knowledge; and

- a work force trained to develop, maintain and provide the value added products and services required by the information economy.

We therefore commit the organizations of the United Nations system to assist developing countries 1n redressing the present alarming trends.

Over the past decades, the organizations of the United Nations have carried out many projects incorporating communication and information technologies. However, today we must acknowledge that often this was done in a rather uncoordinated manner. We therefore perceive an urgent need for a more strategic and systematic approach to ICT and information management, based on a strengthened collaboration among the organizations of the UN system.

We have concluded that the introduction and use of ICT and information management must become an integral element of the priority efforts by the United Nations system to promote and secure sustainable human development for all; hence our decision to embrace the objective of establishing universal access to basic communication and information services for all. ICT and effective information management offer hitherto unknown possibilities and modalities for the solution of global problems to help fulfill social development goals and to build capacities to effectively use the new technologies. At the same time, infrastructure and services of physical communication, in particular postal services, are a means of communication widely and universally used throughout the world, particularly in developing countries. Postal services are vital and will remain, so in developing trade.

Individually and jointly, our organisations are already involved in resources and environment management, transport, international trade and commerce, employment and labour issues, housing, infrastructure and community services, small and medium enterprise development and strengthening of participatory arrangements (see attachment). It is our intention and determination to demonstrate the viability and suitability of the new technologies and effective information management -especially by reaching out to and targeting the rural areas and most impoverished segments of society so often bypassed by the benefits of technological progress. Unless we are able to show that ICTs make a difference and reach out to more poor people or deliver better services to larger segments of society, the potential of ICTs and information management would remain just that.

Harnessing and spreading the potential of the new communication technologies to countries, especially in the developing world, in a timely, cost-effective and equitable manner will be a daunting challenge. The telecommunication lnfrastructure is weak in virtually all developing countries. Excluding China and India, the 57 lowest income countries (which together account for one-fifth of the world's population) have one- hundredth of the global telephone main lines. wherever there is connectivity, it is limited to major cities, the waiting lists are long and there is no indication that the situation will improve dramatically soon. Within the limits of its resources and priorities, the UN system stands ready to assist governments in designing national policies, plans and strategies to facilitate and guide the development and management of an appropriate national information infrastructure in accordance with their needs and tradition.

ICT hold the prospect of an accelerated introduction of certain state- of-the-art technologies superseding the step-by-step process of transferring know-how and technologies which has dominated industrialisation processes. Successful leapfrogging will allow developing countries to advance, bypassing stages of technology development. While being aware of the considerable practical hurdles, we are nevertheless determined to assist our developing country partners in this quest.

We are equally conscious of the imperative to build human and technical capacities to enable societies to facilitate access and make best use of the new multimedia communication resources. The rapid expansion of the Internet and its interactive character have introduced a dramatic paradigm shift in retrieval, handling and dissemination of information. The technologies make it possible for those who need information and knowledge to look for it on an electronic network and download what they need, when they need it. The explosion of the Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) have created an easy to use communication interface for linking together computers in every part of the world for communications, information and data exchange for those who can afford it.

The emphasis on networks such as the Internet should however not distract from the potential role and contribution other ICT can make in advancing sustainable human development. Advances in CD-ROM technology, for example, have made multi-media and large scale data transfers accessible to developing countries, even to areas where there is no telecommunication connectivity. Many of the multimedia options - and especially the Internet depend on connections with a sufficient bandwidth as well as access to electricity grids or renewable energy (e.g. solar power), which are other limiting factors in the poorest areas. Widespread illiteracy diverse cultures and linguistic differences pose yet different obstacles for the introduction of new technologies on a universal basis.

Massive investment in telecommunication networks worldwide has helped to link most developing countries to international telecommunication networks, albeit in most cases only their capital cities. Thus far this connectivity invariably bypasses rural areas and hinterlands of developing countries, where the incidence of poverty is highest. We believe therefore that the expansion of domestic telecommunication infrastructure to rural areas and its connection to reliable international networks must become a top priority for governments, the private sector and multilateral and bilateral development organizations. Unless telecommunication systems can be expanded, access will be confined to an urban, literate elite in developing countries, bypassing rural areas and the poor. Here, rapidly emerging digital satellite systems offer new solutions.

An indication of the magnitude of investment required is seen by the estimate that in Sub-Saharan Africa raising teledensity to 1 telephone mainline per 100 inhabitants (from the current 0.46 mainlines per 100 inhabitants) would require an investment of US 8 billion. The estimate assumes, however, that the cost of a mainline closely mirrors the prevailing international prices, whereas experience shows that typically the cost tends to be about three times higher in Sub-Saharan Africa. The enormity and scale of the challenge to provide universal access in basic communication and information services to the developing world would thus make it advisable to focus on the community level and on reinforcing major development missions such as education, rather than the household or individual level. Even so, harnessing and spreading the potential of the new information and communication technologies to developing countries will be a daunting challenge.

The organizations of the United Nations system alone cannot undertake this massive and exceedingly costly investment. Such investment will help alleviate poverty and create new livelihoods and open up new markets. We call upon the private sector ... to assist in:

- promoting multimedia ICT in the delivery of programmes advancing sustainable human development, especially to rural areas; and

- promoting with the participation of the private sector the creation, management and dissemination of strategic information and data pertaining to the various dimensions of development - globally, regionally and nationally and at the community level.

We are conscious of the fact that modern communication links - and especially Web-based approaches - will materially impact on programmes, programme content, modalities and quality of delivery - and hence on the future of multilateral cooperation and technical assistance per se. For our part, we will accelerate our ongoing internal reform and change processes to create modern, cost-effective and globally networked organizations involving a strengthening of our in-house technical capacities and changing staff attitudes and perceptions, especially among senior managers. Another objective will be to strengthen ties and intensify communication among our far-flung offices opening up presence of technical backup and support.

Beyond, we intend to harmonize and coordinate our strategies for modernizing and enhancing capacities and effectiveness. The objective will be to create a United Nations system-wide Intranet (Internet for internal usage) to facilitate cooperation among the organizations to ensure integrated exploitation of competencies of organizations and coordination at national level. We shall seek to promote cooperation among our respective organizations through the use of compatible systems which we already pursue through the separate mechanism of the Information Systems Coordination Committee. We aim to ensure the compatibility, accessibility and convergence of communications and computer-based system.

All this must be complemented by constantly updated and well managed web-sites for each of our organizations offering hyper links to relevant web-sites both within the UN system and outside. This will confer competence and global authority to our organizations in the electronic age. Indeed, as assessing reliability becomes difficult with more than 65 million web pages each in their area of competence. We must strive to make our web sites the foremost entry points for information on poverty, development and sustainability and universal human values and heritage The Information Systems Coordination Committee, which was established in 1994 with the intent of harmonizing approaches of UN organizations and facilitating access to UN related information, has made a good start.

We also need to explore and comprehend the implications and potential of the ICT era. Do rapid technological advances trigger the emergence of a right to communicate and a right to access information? What are the consequences for the global labour market, including the gender impact and the role of trade unions, and the international division of labour the prospects for access to global markets for goods, products and services from developing country economies: opportunities for global sourcing: the scope for participatory approaches involving youth, local and community groups, women and indigenous organizations and other disenfranchised groups; the impact on the elderly; the consequences for traditional postal services: the dimensions of international copyright and trade in services?

At present, innovation in terms of ICT technology choices, approaches and content responds by and large to the needs and perceptions of industrialized countries and their business sector. We suggest that innovations for both hardware and software must also become demand- and needs-driven to be able to respond to development objectives and needs. This shift from supply-driven to needs driven approaches must become a global priority and influence the direction and pace of future innovation. Only then can ICT take hold and make a significant impact in developing countries - after all the markets of the future. Among others, this will require the design of products apt for use in electricity-poor environments (including hardware independent from electric power such as solar-based or crank-technology driven) and for use by illiterate people (facilitating accessibility through iconographic software and culturally and linguistically diverse content). But partnership and alliances will be driven both by the technical and financial realities.

Thus, we are particularly concerned by the staggering financial needs required to narrow the present gap between countries. Insufficient investment flows inevitably hamper the modernization of telecommunication networks and the introduction of promising technologies for advancing sustainable human development. As official development assistance flows are not projected to increase dramatically over the next years/ we must stimulate innovative approaches to raise a critical mass of resources.

In our view, the sheer magnitude of the task will necessitate the urgent formation of new and novel cooperative mechanisms:

- industry alliances spanning across developed and developing countries; and

- collaborative partnerships across traditional lines -between the government, the private sector, non-governmental organizations, foundations, academic entities, actors of civil society and intergovernmental and international organizations.

We, the heads of the organizations of the United Nations system, have agreed to pursue cooperatively, ... the broad issues of the global information economy and society therefore, we have agreed to commit ourselves to improving universal access to basic communication and information services.

In order to demonstrate our ability to bridge the information gap, we have agreed to undertake through coordinated action, at the country level, pilot projects in the broad areas indicated in the Annex.

The involvement of Member States is essential in responding to the challenges of change. We therefore invite the Secretary-General of the United Nations in his capacity as Chairman of the Administrative Committee on Coordination, to bring the Statement to the attention of the General Assembly, with a view to seeking its endorsement. Executive Heads will also submit the Statement to their respective Governing Bodies.

6. BACKGROUND EXAMPLES OF ICT APPLICATIONS listed by the UN Commission for Science and Technology in Development

In Zambia, a project set up jointly by the University of Zambia Medical Library and the University of Florida twinned the two libraries using email and low-orbit satellites. Overcoming the shortage of material available in Zambia, students and staff at the University were able to access health literature and information not held in their library.

HealthNet Senegal is part of a global network which extends to almost 30 countries. Users of the network are national and international nongovernmental organizations, hospitals and other medical facilities, medical schools, medical libraries and government agencies. The network helps to combat the isolation of health workers and the lack of information which impedes their work. They can communicate with other health professionals locally, regionally and internationally, thereby stimulating 'North-South', 'South-North' and 'South-South' dialogue and exchange of information.

In Brazil, poor and isolated communities are integrated with the help of computer schools, set up by volunteers in slums, using donated equipment. Any type of organization is allowed to participate, provided that it is accepted by the group and has no involvement in illegal activities such as the drugs trade. The computer schools are established in association with existing communities such as Catholic groups, women's groups and environmental groups. Members acquire computer literacy and are offered the possibility of closer social integration.

In Brazil, blind Portuguese and Spanish speakers have access to the Internet using a low-cost voice synthesizer so that they can hear information as they type or determine what information is stored in the computer. Blind people are able to increase the range of jobs they are able to do, such as programming, telemarketing and creating their own companies, as well as to access education materials.

In India, telephone density was increased as a result of the telecommunication restructuring aimed at connectivity, accessibility and rural expansion. Telephone operators emerged in rural areas taking advantage of the telephone connection providing services to customers and creating employment opportunity for others. Users of the telephones were able to improve their own business activities by receiving information on prices for their goods from nearby markets, monitoring the movement of trucks and arranging servicing and repairs.

The Integrated Regional Information Network of the United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs allows information exchange with the humanitarian community in the Great Lakes region of Africa. The many refugees in this area require humanitarian relief and rehabilitation, which are supported by the use of ICT for better information management. The network relies on the use of the Internet, fax, satellite communication, high-frequency radio and telex.

In Chile, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) opened small information centres providing full Internet access, located in the offices of farmers' organizations and non-governmental organizations, to address the identified information needs of small-scale producers. The FAO provided training to the staff of the host organizations and to farmers, and the latter are able to access locally relevant information which is disseminated to the network of users. This includes data on crops, international crop status and market timing, prices and weather, technical and training information, and information about the organizations that support their work. The farmers use e-mail to communicate with other farmers' organizations in Chile and elsewhere in Latin America, and also with world-wide Spanish-speaking Internet users. The information centres are beginning to extend their service to the nonagricultural community, such as youth groups and social service agencies.

7. Report on issues raised at the Waigani Seminar as endorsed by Participants at the Closing Session

Given the interconnected nature of issues recommendations need to be formulated within an overall action plan.

Policy base - After part 1 the report uses the headings on Information Services of the already approved National Policy on Information and Communication of Papua New Guinea

1. General aspects

1.1. NII development, this requires formation of Task Force and a meeting on issues. Further guidelines have been issued by UNCSTAD.

1.2. Development of National Information Systems is possible but needs careful planning. Some plans for PNG have been developed by the Library Council. (Wijasuriya)

1.3. An information issue related NGO can assist (Tankha/ Kavanamur) - see section 5.

1.4. Further workshops are required (possibly collaborative)

1.5. National Policy on Information and Communication of Papua New Guinea (Iduhu) - should be further implemented.

1.6. A better structural position in Government was needed for the Department of Information and Communication (questioner)

1.7. An all out search for resources is required for implementation. (Volmer, Kami, Koike)

1.8. As ICT development required energy support is given to solar energy projects for schools and their associated libraries and Internet access

2. Role of information in Society

2.1. Sectoral studies show that information can make a difference - but supply is often deficient:-

Women (Kidu)

Small business (Kavanamur)

Land owner (Kwa)

Democratic process (Anere)

Law and order (Sali)

Disasters (Waninara)

Human rights (Tom’tovala)

Science (Mua)

2.2. There is a large body of sectoral policy for guidance (Yeates)- do we need a directory of policies? PNG Government is to be urged to sign relevant declaration on disabilities (Yeates)

2.3. Women’s policy was not implemented and information for women an urgent need. (Kidu)

2.4. Traditional knowledge was highly and efficiently organized (Kinasa/ Kamene), but now eroding. There was a need to maintain and study its mechanisms (Hill) - and a need to recognize its continuing role for 21st Century (Waiko). It was noted that the mother tongue was to be used in early years in school to foster local traditions

2.5. There was a wide range of traditional communication methods other than speech (Nekitel/ Nali) that need to be properly considered especially as new ones are introduced

2.6. APEC TEL Test bed on Language and Culture issues could be established

3. Access to Information resources and services

3.1. PNG can not afford to lag behind with ICT (Waiko)

3.2. Low participation rates / high participation costs were a great challenge (Nali / Unwin)

3.3. A two way flow (from and too) was required (Nali) - and there was a need to strike a balance between top-down, bottom up information flows (Nekitel)

3.4. Community service obligations were being recognized by the regulator (Wobiro)

3.5. Satellite bases services were needed to reach some areas (Wobiro)

3.6. It was timely to formulate a programme of human rights education (Yoli)

3.7. An information imbalance exists with western dominated media market, strategies were needed for democratic media. (Tankha)

3.8. Services were generally poor and worsening (Sause). E.g. At UPNG - traditional sources not being bought, and there was poor access to ICT (Hills). A further example showed in the communication profile (Anere)

3.9 There were requirements of the NIS for those with disabilities (Yeates)

3.10 Reality of the rural condition (Decock) requires proper planning of communication for development

3.11 Cost of Internet access needed to be reduced (Hills)

3.12 Urban and rural information / telecentres need to be made available (Kavanamur / Wrondimi). Though there will be problems that need thinking through (Tinkepa)

3.13. There were high costs as a result of lack of information (Sause)

3.14. There were significant legislative implications (Tom’tavala, Kwa, Tankha, Wobiro)

3.15. There could be LIS improvements via resource sharing, better access, marketing, good business practices (Reu - Wijasuriya)

3.16 There was a crying need to improve community school libraries (with power) (Nekitel)

4. Development of PNG Information Resources

4.1. There was a need to celebrate PNG’s linguistic, genetic and cultural diversity (Waiko) and its contribution nationally and to humanity (Wari) Note - A project on the issue of diversity had been developed by the Social and Human Sciences Sub-Committee of the PNG National Commission for UNESCO and was with UNESCO which had approved it for extra-budgetary funding.

4.2. The situation required a Commission of Inquiry into Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (Waiko)

4.3. More national writing and collection and making available of local history was needed (Winduo, Kituai, Kinasa)

4.4. PI content was required (Kami)

4.5. The Oral History Journal needs to be re-established (Kituai)

4.6. Resources will be needed for Oral traditions projects- village experience goes deep and needs to be recorded to construct local history (Kituai)

4.7. Traditional medicine is of value and traditional methods in teaching and learning should be utilized as models at educational institutions (Matainaho)

4.8. Local publishing serves development and can be improved (Crowl, Matane) - UPNG Book Development Group has developed project.(DIPPNG) - A Book Sector Study is suggested

4.9. Authors to be encouraged by better opportunities to publish (Winduo)

4.10 PNG content was required in all media and content could be in local languages (Nekitel)

4.11. Development of libraries will assist sales, market and access (Matane)

4.12. Educational institutions should buy PNG authors works (Matane)

4.13. Indigenous knowledge center could help - but methods and requirements require further consideration (Mangi, Muke, Digim’rima, etc.)

4.14 Intellectual Property Rights need to be actively followed through (Muke, Hill)

4.15 The role of museums (Moutu) and records and archives need to be recognised (Kanasa, Kaima/Hoheg)

4.16 Films and video provided great opportunities to reach an audience. (Waiko, Muke, Evans)

4.17 Previous plans, policy should be utilized (Wijasuriya) - KESISU was being developed

4.18 Collaborative projects can result in useful resources (PROSEA) - Matu

5. Use and awareness of information

5.1. There were only limited achievements so far, e.g. Book Week (Matane)

5.2. Political awareness was needed, with commitment and vision from above - e.g. Malaysia (Kami)

5.3. There was a need to look for information solutions (e.g. Conference panel) and a need to look at relevant projects and experience elsewhere (Tankha)

5.4. Scientific knowledge, in particular, needs better mechanisms for dissemination (Mua)

5.5. NGOs should make use of technologies for awareness purposes - also use information on low cost business opportunities (Tankha)

5.6. Advocacy in relation to information skills was required (Evans)

5.7 There was a need to democratise media systems, freedom of information, free flow of information(Anere)

6. Human resources

6.1. These were vital for development of NIS (Wijasuriya)

6.2. There was a need to invest in future productivity through ICT and libraries (Hills) and all students needed to be immersed in IT (Kami)

6.3. Curriculum revision was necessary (Eva)

6.4 An Information Management programme for those handling information in organisations was required. (Treloar)

6.5. Information skills to be taught widely (Evans/ Reu) In place of current partial and ad- hoc approaches educational institutions and systems should consider the teaching of information skills which are:

Integrated to other curricular areas

Use a well developed model for ease of acceptance and delivery

6.6 There would need to be a shift towards resource based learning so the trend towards negligible provision of resources must be reversed, acknowledging that resources can both be traditional and of western origin and recognising that both have roles to play. Development of PNG content of media resources is to be given priority.

6.7 Mandatory short courses in information skills should be provided for the Public Service (Treloar)

6.8. There was a need for Development Communication Training for Liaison Workers (Kehatsin) - should include PNG Language training (Nekitel)

6.9. Improved attitudes among LIS workers were required (Reu)

6.10 Include Information/ IT aspects should be required in training for teachers

6.11. There could be a consortium in information and communication training to save duplication

6.12 There was an urgent need to implement the HR and Research aspects of the National Policy

6.13. There could be cooperative planning and teaching of courses with LIS staff (Reu)

7 Networks /Technology

7.1. There was to be a national network for educational institutions (Waiko)

7.2. It should be possible to connect key points around the county (Nali) at least as an initial measure

7.3. There should be full participation in NII, APII, GII (Telikom Meeting)

7.4. PNG should use trailing edge technology (Treloar)

7.5. A National Plant Research Information System was required (Matu)

7.6 Improved allocation of resources to LIS and computing at UPNG/Unitech was required (Treloar)

7.7 More information on initiatives was required (Govt. Panel)

7.8 There was a need to form associations, and influence Government (Tankha)

7.9 The IDRC (International Development Research Centre) and its Pan Asia Network should be encouraged to take more interest in PNG

7.10 There was a need to restart Association for LIS workers (Reu)

7.11 LIS network was needed (Reu)

7.12 PNG Intranets needed development (Kami)

7.13 Improved IT in Government was required (Madire)

7.14 Attention needed to be paid to Internet issues

7.15. There needed to be more exchange of information gained at conferences.

8. INFORM PNG A proposal for an NGO concerned with information and its communication in PNG

Context - In a typical province you may find that the broadcasting station is run down or about to close, the public library is either closed or has not acquired materials since 1978, the provincial information office is a place of deep rest, there is no local newspaper. Schools may be without books, traditional knowledge will be ignored and disappearing. This is at the beginning of the so-called "information age" and at the start of a period of local and provincial government reform and in the middle of major resource exploitation. This is despite having an Information and Communication Policy accepted by government.

Noting the importance of information for democratic participation and for educational, social and economic development if a people and equally noting that both the recognition of the value of information and the mechanisms for the communication of information within Papua New Guinea is weak and deteriorating, INFORM PNG will work as a pressure group too ensure that information issues get the attention they deserve. It will suggest and actively seek to implement improvements.

Suggested goal:-

The goal of INFORM PNG is to ensure that information is available to contribute to individual and national development and to press for systematic improvement to information and communication services


• develop community and institutional awareness of the value of information

• make representations and suggestions to government and others in support of improved access to information

• support positive initiatives in respect of indigenous knowledge

• promote application of policy and standards to services

• support constitutional guarantee of freedom of information and expression and human rights

• monitor professional, ethical and fairness issues amongst communication and information workers

• be a focus for information on relevant projects and advances in technology

• conduct research into information, communication and mass media trends

• secure funds for pilot projects and activities

• liaise with other organisations and groups in support of its goals and objectives

Membership:- Membership will be open all to all those interested in improving information and communications services in PNG


Wednesday 27th August

0830-0900 Traditional dances arranged by Faculty of Creative Arts

0900-1030 Opening

Chair, Vice Chancellor

Opening remarks - Keynote on "Information and the Nation" - Michael Nali, Hon. Acting Minister for Education

Second Keynote on Traditional Knowledge – "The Role of Traditional Knowledge in the 21st Century" - Hon. John Waiko, Vice Minister for Education

PNG Telecommunications Sector - Developments - Ati Wobiro, Corporate Planner, PANGTEL

Accessing outside information - National Information Systems - D E K Wijasuriya, Information Development Consultant and Visiting Professor, Curtin University

1030-1100 - Break

1100-1200 Chair - G. Linge, Dean of Law

The National Information and Communications Policy - Henao Iduhu, Director, Office of Information and Communications

Legal issues and Human Rights Information - Yoli Tom’tovala, Department of Law, University of PNG

1200-1300 Lunch

1300-1445 Chair - Prof. Ron Huch, Professor of History

Traditional communications : encoding of messages per semiotic media -Prof. Nekitel, UPNG

Information from Oral History - August Kituai, UPNG

Collecting Local History - Biama Kanasa, UPNG

Traditional Medicine - T. Matainaho, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, UPNG

Requirements for an Indigenous Knowledge Centre - Panel

L. Digim’rina, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, UPNG

J. Mangi, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, UPNG

John Muke, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, UPNG

Ralph Wari, Institute of PNG Studies

Stephen Winduo, Department of Language and Literature UPNG

1445-1515 - Break

1515- 1630 - Panel on recent conference developments (Chair- Prof. Nekitel):-

Prof. O. Nekitel, UPNG - Revitalization of local languages;

John Muke; L. Digim’rina, UPNG - Intellectual Property Rights;

John Evans, UPNG - Knowledge for Development

1830 - Reception at Vice-Chancellor’s Residence

Evening - MLT - PNG Film Club starts - Optional programme of videos arranged by Library and Information Studies Students Association

Films :-

Man without Pigs

Price of Peace

Thursday - 28th August

0830-1000 - Publishing and Communication

Chair, John Evans, UPNG Press

Publishing for Local and Regional Information - Linda Crowl, Institute of Pacific Studies

Double conscience - without the instrument to liberate - Stephen Winduo, Department of Language and Literature UPNG

Channels of Communication: Individual, Nation and International Community - Brij Tankha, Centre for Development of Instructional Technology, New Delhi

1000-1030 - Break

1030-1200 Sectoral Reports on Information and Communication

Chair -Ms O. Sepoe, Department of Politics and Public Administration, UPNG

Information for Women - Lady Carol Kidu, MP

Traditional Knowledge in Science - Prof. Lance Hill, UPNG

Communication of Scientific Findings - John Mua, Department of Chemistry, UPNG

Context change: introducing lunch time performance - Dennis Crowdy, Creative Arts, UPNG

1030-1200 Sectoral Reports - Parallel Session Council Room - Chair - Bruce Yeates

Law and Order - G. Sali, Department of Anthropology and Sociology

Natural Disasters - Caspar Towaninara, Melanesian Institute

Museums and Knowledge - Andrew Moutu, National Museum

Traditional communications - Drum Signals and the Maramba Society - Paul Yamngarpise Norman, Department of Anthropology/ Sociology, UPNG

1200-1300 Lunch - Lunch time music performance by staff and students, Faculty of Creative Arts

1300-1430 Sectoral Reports (continued) Chair - Rhonda Eva - SPCenCIID

Small Business - David Kavanamur, Department of Politics and Public Administration, UPNG

Disability - Bruce Yeates, Dean, Faculty of Arts, UPNG

Rural communities - Sakarepe Kamene, Department of Language and Literature, UPNG

Health Information - Anamaria Decock - Health Communications Specialist, PNG Department of Health

Land Owners - Eric Kwa, Department of Law, UPNG

Plant Genetic Information - Rosemary Matu, PROSEA, PNG Country Office, and Philip Siaguru, Forestry Department, Unitech

1430-1500 - Break

1500-1600 Communications, Democracy and Pluralism - Panel

Ray Anere, Department of Politics and Public Administration, UPNG (Chair)

Lawrence Sause, Department of Politics and Public Administration, UPNG

Brij Tankha - Centre for the Development of Instructional Technology, New Delhi

1600-1615 - New approaches to Environmental Information - John Evans

1615-1630 Summary of issues raised in parallel session - Dr. Wijasuriya

Evening - Videos on Social Development, Human Rights and Environmental issues

Friday - 29th August

0830-1000 - Human Resources

Chair - Dr. Cecilia Nembou, Pro-Vice Chancellor, UPNG

Resource Development for Information Infrastructure - Rhonda Eva, South Pacific Centre for Communication and Information in Development, UPNG

Information Management - Andrew Treloar, School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Deakin University

Information Skills - John Evans, South Pacific Centre for Communication and Information in Development, UPNG

Selling the Information Profession to PNG - Polycarp Reu, Matheson Library. PNG University of Technology

Communication for Development - Justin Kehatsin, Language and Communications Studies, Unitech

Communication for Development: a Student’s View - Sisa Kini, Language and Communications Studies, Unitech

1000-1030 Break

1030-1215 Networks

Chair - Dr. Jerry Tamate, Department of Chemistry, UPNG

UNDP Networks in Sustainable Development and Small Island States - Taholo Kami, UNDP, New York

IT and the Government - Camillus Midire, Deputy Secretary, Department of Planning and Implementation

Solar Lights for Rural Schools - John Volmer, Department of Education

"EnerTec" -Solar Energy Program Demonstration

1200-1300 Lunch

1300 - 1500 Internet issues

Chair - Dr. John Luluaki, Pro-Vice Chancellor, UPNG

Internet and effects on PNG - Nathan Kwassam, South Pacific Centre for Communication and Information in Development, UPNG

Social Impact of the Internet - Paul Unwin, Computers and Communications

Hot-wired media: How PNG news organisations are facing the challenge of cyberspace - David Robie, South Pacific Centre for Communication and Information in Development, UPNG (URL

ISP session - Representatives of Internet Service Providers, Sundar Ramamurthy, General Manager, Data Nets

1500-1600 Closing session

Wrap up on Issues on Information for the Nation - Panel - Chair, Dr. Wijasuriya - Presentation, John Evans

Note of thanks - Rhonda Eva, SPCenCIID

Closing remarks - Observations on "Information and the Nation" - Bernard Narokobi

Closing Mumu

Display relating to Visual communication provided throughout the Seminar by Bob Browne, Faculty of Creative Arts


10.1. "Getting into Print"

0830 am - 400 pm, 18th August 1997, Council Room, UPNG

Workshop objective:- To introduce potential authors into the ways and means of getting their work published by a reputable publisher. The workshop will concentrate on book publishing.

Target Group:- Academics (and others) who may wish to have their work published but who do not have much experience of publishing.

Presenter :- This workshop is being conducted by Linda Crowl, Publications Fellow, Institute of Pacific Studies (IPS), University of the South Pacific. Over 2000 Pacific Islanders have had their work published in association with the Institute of Pacific Studies. They have over 400 books in print. There will be a display of publications at the Workshop.

10.2. Communications and Democracy

Tuesday 26th August 1997 - 130-330 pm.

UPNG Council Room

Conducted by Brij Tankha

Centre for the Development of Instructional Technology, New Delhi

"New communications technologies are rapidly changing the context in which audio visual communication takes place. They present great challenges and opportunities to people working for democratic communication. Maintaining and widening the public communication space that has been gained so far will require media activists and progressive communicators to seize the initiative."

Objective - to provide an opportunity for advance discussion on one of the major issues relating to the theme of the Waigani Seminar. Based on his recent book "Communications and Democracy : Ensuring Plurality" Dr. Tankha will outline issues relating to:-

• Defining the right to information

• The New Communication Technologies

• Experience and Future Directions - from the point of view of local broadcasters, women’s media groups, and people in the so-called developing world.

Participants should view this information with a view to discussing:-

• relevance of experience and issues to Papua New Guinea

• research and training implications

• use and development of networks

PARTICIPATION - Free to all interested persons

10.3. Information Management : Concepts and Human Resource Requirements

Saturday 30th August 0900-1600 - Room 134 Arts 2

Conducted by Andrew Treloar

Senior Lecturer

School of Mathematics and Computer Science

Deakin University


1. To provide an overview of the concept of "information management"

2. To outline areas that need to be included in an "information management" programme

3. To review progress (!) on the proposed information management programme at UPNG

4. To assist the curriculum review process that SPCenCIID is undertaking in relation to the School of Social and Development Science, especially in respect of an "information management" sequence

TARGET AUDIENCE - Staff of SPCenCIID, staff involved in computer studies, planners of the new school structures, employers of information professionals, other interested persons.

10.4. Workshop on Research Methods for Library and Information Services / APINESS Research Upgrading Meeting

Council Room, University of Papua New Guinea, 1-3 September 1997, 8.30am -4.00 pm daily.

Conducted by Dr. D E K Wijasuriya, Visiting Professor in Research Methods, Department of Library and Information Studies, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.


:- to instruct staff in basic research methodology

:- to equip them to be able to profile information needs in their organisations

:- to inform participants of, and to involve them in developing, further stages of the project KESISU - Key Sector Information Support Project.

:- to inform participants of developments in the UNESCO APINESS network and in the Pan Asia Network of IDRC.

Target audience:- Those in management positions in PNG Library / Information Studies who are hold at least Diploma level qualifications and

who are in a position to apply what is learned to the operations of their own units.

The workshop is funded by UNESCO.

10.5. Public Lecture by Taholo Kami, UNDP, New York 2nd September 1997

10.6 Seminar Follow up

The follow up virtual conference to be run on IDRC’s Pan Asia website:-

PNGBUAI project information manager:
Dr. John Evans
SPCenCIID (South Pacific Centre for Communications and Information In Development) and University of Papua New Guinea

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