INFORMATION AS RESOURCE - a contribution to the Information Technology Seminar 10-11 August 1992
This paper provides an account of the development of the concept of information and provides working definitions. It also looks at the important areas within the field. Of particular interest will be the premises that underlie the provision of modern information services and the development of the concept of information as a resource. Information technology is viewed as a powerful tool in harnessing the full benefits of information in national development and in the realisation of the development of the information economy. Despite the potential that improved use of information has there are severe problems with information in Papua New Guinea and the paper concludes with a treatment of the prospects and potential for the development of improved services with a view to their future sustainability.
What we may be looking for is:-
1. The right information for the right people at the right time in the most appropriate form. This is to provide for better decision making; improved policy support; development of business and industry, etc.
2. The use of appropriate information technology to enhance this process, and to extend services widely to the rural areas.
3. Substantial improvement of operational and policy support
for the development of new and improved information services using the most appropriate technology.
4. A cadre of information managers to be developed and for the education and training system to allow for this by new or revised programmes at appropriate levels.
5. The highest level support and coordinating committee to ensure that planned improvements actually do take place and can be implemented and sustained.
I would like to thank the organisers of this conference for providing another venue for the long overdue development of a greater information awareness in this country. My own Department has also conducted seminars with a view to establishing improvements in information services. The latest of these was held in July under the title "Information for Development" and was conducted by Prof. Neelameghan of the School of Information Studies, University of Addis Ababa. The professor has had a long experience of the development of the concepts and practice of information work and I will draw heavily on some of the material he presented. This material is available from the Department for those interested.(1)
As a consequence of the last two seminars in this field the participants have drawn up a set of draft "Guidelines for Information in Policy and Decision Support". This draft is open to participants at this seminar to make further comment and input to. It could provide a tool for the holding of discussions on information at the provincial and Departmental level. It mentions information technology, of course, but reference is made to the Public Service Information Technology Policy and its premises. The headings of the guidelines conform with recognised headings for National Information Policies (2) and these are also used in the draft National Policy for Library and Information Services which is currently with the Department of Personnel Management.
The following are the main headings:-
1. Role of information in Papua New Guinea development
2. Access to information resources and services
3. Development of Papua New Guinea information resources
4. Promotion of the use and awareness of information
5. Human resources for information services
6. Organisation and coordination of Papua New guinea information activities
7. Information technology and systems
8. Regional and international information participation
The main premise is that a socio-economic system is likely to perform more efficiently and effectively if its planning, execution and monitoring are supported with timely, relevant and reliable data and information.
The problem is, of course, the poor state of information provision in Papua New Guinea. Since you seldom ask for something you are not familiar with, decision makers and their political masters remain unacquainted with the benefits of good information and thus are disinclined to see any need for improvement. Information technology and its appeal may well prove an useful ally in altering of such attitudes. Technophobia may not be an important issue for Papua New Guineans.
2. Concepts and definition
Information is often discussed in association with the terms knowledge and communication. While knowledge has been with us since the Garden of Eden the term information has not been extensively used until quite recently.(3) Shannon in 1949 is credited with the development of the mathematical theory of information. In the far ranging discussion of the concepts by Machlup very few literature references are to be found dating before 1960.(4)
Coupled with the recent large scale adoption of the term there have been numerous attempts at definition - probably one is available for each member of the audience - and according to Kent the definition is in "the eye of the beholder".(5) Various academic disciplines have converged upon information and "each discipline sees itself as the centre of the information universe rather than revolving around a centre comprising of information".(6) According to the focus of the discipline then more and more definitions are available. Here are a few:-
"Information, defined as knowledge in communicable form, is recognised today as one of the main requirements for development. Indeed the ability to record and use data, information and knowledge is one of the most important human characteristics." - Unesco / PGI(7)
"Information is data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to the recipient and is of perceived value in current or prospective decisions"(8)
A detailed treatment of terms and concepts is to be found as Annex 1. This also provides a working definition which has been used in some of the discussions within Papua New Guinea mentioned above:-
"Information is some meaningful message transmitted from source to users. In this process information may be stored in information products and systems organised for providing a memory in numerical, sound and image forms. Information may also be communicated through interpersonal channels. The "source" may be documentary material, institutions or people."(9)
Information is not homogenous and can be categorised into various types, leading to further problems of definition. The types may be distinguished by:-
Role - e.g. information for decision makers
Coverage - e.g. in specialised subjects
Level - e.g. technical, popular
Channel - e.g. computerised services, mass media
Accessibility - e.g. public and classified
It is also to be noted that information forms a part of a hierarchical relationship of Data; Information; Knowledge;
Wisdom. As with any hierarchy the base is considerably more extensive than the apex,and we can suspect that quantity of wisdom that eventually develops from the basic data will be limited.
As in the context of Papua New Guinea we should be looking at information in relation to development it might be worth adding, for the record, a definition of development information that has found some favour:-
"Development information is...intelligence or knowledge that contributes to the social, economic, cultural and political well-being of society irrespective of the form in which it is encrypted in (text, figures, diagrams, etc.), the medium it is stored in (paper, magnetic, ), the mode of dissemination (oral, written, audio-visual, etc.), the social activity that generated it (research, administration, censuses, remote sensing, etc.) or the organising and disseminating institution (libraries, documentation centres, archives, statistical offices, computer centres, media and broadcasting services, telecommunications services)."(10)
3. Information - themes and premises
The historical development of information presents several phases. The earliest or oral phase, is of considerable importance and traditionally most information would have been captured thus. This is still the case - witness meetings and gatherings such as this. The method however has its drawbacks in that the amount of information that can be stored by an individual or even collective memory is limited in quantity and by the lifespan of individuals. The second major phase emerges with the evolution of systems of writing and the associated tools and materials with which and on which to write. In the first few years of life and school a child can now reproduce the steps that took thousands of years of this evolutionary process.
With the creation of written documents came the need for the storage of such documents and the advent of libraries which are the institutions that have for the longest period of time been involved with the storage, organisation and more latterly the dissemination of information. With hand copying the production of documents was still a laborious and costly exercise and those who had access to writing and reading skills were very much an elite. The third phase - the development of printing - especially with the development of faster methods and cheaper materials in the 19th century - is what allowed the multiplication of the number of books, of readers, and of ready access to the available information locally and world wide. Printing was introduced in Papua New Guinea with the missionaries and the colonial Government, with its roots in 1872 and 1886 respectively. Printing banished the tyrannies of time and space and as such we now have access here to materials written at all periods of history and from all countries. Despite all that has happened the impact of printing or of the book itself is still far from clear.(11,12)
While the printed book may aptly be looked as a form of information technology - a reading machine. The latest phase in the communication of information has been come about through the use of electronics. We now have ever faster means of communicating, processing and producing information, and media which provide colossal stores for information. This promises changes, equivalent if not more far ranging, than the effect of printing.
Other commentators have also identified major transitions between agrarian societies, industrial societies and now the emergence of post-industrial societies, or, as some would have it, information societies, where the major activity is the handling of information. Similarly the power base in such transitions has moved from control of land, through control of capital, through to control of information itself. In countries such as Papua New Guinea which are seeking their own development this is a worrying issue as there will be a need for increasing transfers of funds in future for information and information technology. In many cases this will involve paying for getting your own research back as the tendency is for domestic research to be published abroad. In addition the concentration of research facilities within developing countries is very low.
Developing countries have:-
78% of the world's population
12% of the world's telephones
5% of the world's scientific and technical publications
3% of the world's research and development expenditure (13)
The following prominent themes are also encountered in the development of a history of information(3):-
This is obviously of interest in a country such as Papua New Guinea, yet information work often steers clear of this problem or from analysis of relevant work that records the effects of literacy. There are yet other forms of literacy that are of concern once the ability to read and write is grasped. There is the issue of numeracy, another problem here. To this one would also add information literacy, the ability to seek for and find the information one needs for working and living. To that the organisers of this conference would doubtless add, the "new" literacy, the ability to use computers and communications technology and the like. Technology can however does present all kinds of ways of getting information into the rural areas and illiterate populations and this could be one of its major benefits.
3.2. Organisation of knowledge
There is a need for effective systems of organising information for retrieval. This theme is close to the heart of the information sciences and the approaches are exemplified within the institutions we have with us today. The rapid growth in the quantity of documents and information has of necessity led to the abandonment of certain old methods and development of new ones. The technology at present results in more flexible and rapid access to the stores of information and quite dramatic new reference tools are appearing on CD-ROM which should find enthusiastic acceptance in the classrooms and offices here.
3.3. Institutions and dissemination of information
While in earlier periods it was the individual who played a major role in the history of information,as information has expanded more and more in quantity and elaboration the issue has become one of the interplay of institutions, associations and organisations within the information field. It is to be hoped that in the context of Papua New Guinea things do not get too complex and that a more unified approach to the field will be possible- especially as new developments are catered for by policy initiatives.
3.4. Control and freedom of information
This can be looked at in terms of the censorship and copyright issues which are perennial topics in Papua New Guinea. However, there are other issues that arise such as freedom of information and data protection. As mentioned above reliance on exotic rather than indigenous sources of information is not only going to lead to a hefty price tag, but also to issues of who controls the information that is being made available (even if it is affordable) - censorship notwithstanding. The issue of information must be viewed as an issue of a resource and not as a commodity, and barriers to transfer of information must be avoided.
3.5. Economics of information
The scope of knowledge occupation has been looked at in previously cited work by Machlup. Defining a "knowledge occupation" as "one that involves activities, gainful or costly, that are designed chiefly to aid in the generation, transmission or reception of knowledge of any type, sort or quality, including giving, directly or through instruments, visual, aural, or otherwise sensible signals, and ranging from carrying messages to creating new knowledge." The definition comprises the following classifications:-
3. Research and development
4. Print media of communication
5. Electronic mass media of communication
6. Addressed telecommunication
7. Artistic creation and communication
9. Science information services
10. Technological information services
11. Medical and health information services
12. Other professional information services
13. Financial information services
14. Business information services and management
15. Government information services
16. Advertising and public relations
17. Information machines and equipment
This is a catch all definition of the jobs (including most of ours!) that information encompasses and is used as the starting point for the analysis of the economics of the contemporary "information industry".
3.6. Policy, international issues, network development.
An important aspect in advancing the cause of information has been the interest shown in it by various international agencies either in the course of their work or in the more general aspect of promoting the development of information systems and services. In the development sphere due credit should be paid to the International Development Research Centre Canada, which has funded projects in this country, and Unesco. Unesco's interest included the UNISIST programme, moved through the now abandoned concept of the National Information System(14) or NATIS, and is now concentrated within the General Information Programme or PGI.
Another important development in the information field has been the creation of information policy. Policy has proved to be an useful device in concentrating attention and discussion on information issues. Witness the effects of the Information Technology Policy here. Should moves continue towards a more integrative National Information Policy covering all fields then still more interest will be developed - though it would seem that a very high level committee will be needed to ensure such policy has a chance of being implemented (15).
The continuing international development of information is illustrated further by the various networks that are now in place and to some of which Papua New Guinea contributes. All of these are potential channels, which may or may not involve the new technology, by means of which information will be made more available here. Examples(16) are:-
APINESS - Asia-Pacific Network for the Social Sciences
ASTINFO - Regional Network for the Exchange of Information and Experience in Science and Technology in Asia and the Pacific
This has sub-networks:-
APINMAP - Asia Pacific Information Network for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
INNERTAP - New and Renewable Energy Information Network
ISORIP - Information System on Research in Progress
CARIS - Current Agricultural Research Information Network
ChIN - International Chemical Information Network
IDIN - International Development Information Network on Research in Progress
TIPS - Technology Information Pilot System
4. Information as a resource
Information forms the major base on which the growth of knowledge and so much else depends. Without information decisions will be random ad-hoc choices, projects are unlikely to meet set objectives, reports will not adequately reflect situations. Imagine this situation occurring daily and then multiply it by the numbers of the population because information is used at all levels and everyone has information needs. In general we can suspect that these will not be met. There is need therefore for information to be used as one Papua New Guinea's natural resources capable of being exploited for personal advancement of all citizens and the good of society. In an atmosphere of almost constant change ,however, new services, and new approaches and centres will need to be created if information is to contribute to national development.
So far, in formulating national development plans little attention has been paid to the systematic organisation and dissemination of information as one of the vital resources of the country.
4.1. Features of the information resource
The "resource" displays the following features(17):-
1. Information has only recently been accepted as a national resource that is susceptible to study using techniques that have been developed and applied to other areas of human endeavour.
2. Current information systems at both local, national and regional level are really a collection of uncoordinated entities that loosely link information producers to users. There is no overall system in the sense in which the term is normally used.
3. Individuals and organisations are at the same time producers and consumers of information.
[Models for the communication of information are provided as figures 1 and 2]
4. The value of information is in its utilisation.
5. National information infrastructures in developing countries are often non-innovative, fragmented and under-used.
6. Looking at information as a product that must be designed, developed, packaged and promoted on the basis of identified user needs is a new concept that is gaining ground with the application of information technology.
7. Information is potentially a plentiful resource and is also potentially inexhaustible.
4.2. Improved utilisation of the resource in Papua New Guinea
The following are some projections for new services to important sectors of the community as discussed at a recent conference held in Port Moresby(18):-
4.2.1. Value added information services
The changing nature expected of information services is shown in Figure 3 - a distorted pyramid. At the base level are the conventional library operations of acquiring and organising materials that form the information resources and providing access to them for users.
With the application of information technology the amount of effort and time that needs to be applied to these basic operations is reduced. This allows staff time to provide higher level services as illustrated in the higher reaches of the figure. As higher levels are reached the tasks will involve dealing with the information contained in the sources and in analysing, consolidating and repackaging it. Thus time is saved by the user and the benefits provided by the information increases. However, such changes will require an improved cadre for provision of service and there would be a need for a deeper knowledge of the subject fields of the users and closer collaborative work with them. Training for information personnel, who would now need a subject background, will need to include techniques of information analysis, consolidation and repackaging and also of developing expert systems.
4.2.2. Information services to small enterprises
The development of this group constitutes an important aspect of government thinking. They can contribute significantly to the gross national product and to employment. They will utilise local materials and reduce the drain on foreign exchange. However, they need a wider range of information in order to be innovative or operationally effective but are unable to support this information work on their own. The solution in several developing countries is for a government centre or centres to be responsible for their support. On-going research is also being linked with the needs of industries. The required technology transfer involves a number of stages and good information flow can reduce the time lags between such stages and result in the more effective start up and continuing functioning of such enterprises.
4.2.3. Development information
Planning requires a wide range of information on a whole range of factors. Countries require mechanisms to collect, process and make available the required data, such as National and Provincial Data Systems. These data systems are usually outside of the library and information services set up. However, the possibility of links between the two would enhance the capacity of both to provide required development information, especially if information from current research is included in the system.
4.2.4. Information for rural development
This can mean the collection of statistics and various indicators from rural areas as outlined above. It also means extending out to the rural population the information they need for daily activities and to improve living standards. This two way communication is considered essential for adequate rural development to take place. This work can be enhanced by technology which becomes wedded to the traditional face to face extension work. Rural telephone links and satellite communications have provided considerable benefits to certain countries and television and radio makes a significant contribution to extension programmes in the areas of farming, family and health, literacy activities, etc. There is the prospect of battery or generator powered micro-earth stations, as used in Latin-American countries, to enable transmissions to reach even the most remote areas. Facsimile can allow newsletters and poster information to reach community centres for further distribution. If this can be combined with low cost printing facilities at such centres then so much the better.
5. Information technology
This has been discussed in the previous paper but here some points will be given on the likely impact of technology on information services. New technology can be viewed as threat, a miracle, or as a tool. In this case it may be best viewed as a tool. A tool that will assist in the overall information tasks and should assist very well. This is not that considerable thought and care should not be involved in the designing and the selection of the most appropriate tool. In information work we must maintain a very wide definition of the technology that is appropriate. It is in this, and the general wide spread use of audio-visual material that Lundu sees the most appropriate use of the various "information technologies."
"It is our submission that this type of technology if properly selected, would form what IT in a broad sense would mean in a country such as Zambia. I believe this type of technology is not generally available in the country. This is because IT has generally been associated with modern electronic products like computers and telecommunications. I am afraid this thinking should be discouraged if developing countries like Zambia are to make use of any available technology especially in the rural areas where illiteracy is still very high amongst the population."(19)
With regard the impact of any technology Kranzberg's First Law has it that technology is neither good, nor bad, nor neutral as such effects will go far beyond those originally planned for and this should enter all our calculations - even if it does tend to render them speculative.(20)
Attitudes will determines the effect of information technology and not the technology itself. Organisational and human faults rather than technical problems will be those hindering system performance. The information technology should be the enabler rather than an arbiter of changes. As regards the process of change it is supposed that there are three phases of evolution. Phase 1 involves automation or mechanisation of basic clerical and accounting techniques and change is relatively limited - many offices here will have faced and overcome such changes successfully. Phase 2 involves extending service provision and makes possible the introduction of services hitherto uneconomic by manual means through the use of technology. With phase 3 totally new services that are impossible without the technology are made available. While phase 1 and 2 may be easy to put into operation within existing structures, phase 3 will require a restructuring of the management process, to fully exploit the potential that the technology offers. It also requires a very thorough understanding of the tool available - and a complete revision of attitudes in the case of most managers.
5.1. Issues causing concern to developing countries
Features of information technology causing concern to developing countries are(21):-
-accessibility at affordable cost of the accelerating innovations; also costs and pricing of data and facsimile transmission
--lack of local and national infrastructure, including information industry, to effectively utilise information technology
-effect on employment and related social and political issues
-possible control and censorship of information by governments / other entities. This is coupled with issues of freedom of access to and publication of information and concerns over assaults on privacy and confidentiality of individual or corporate information
-sovereignty and conflicts vis a vis nation states. Related issues being trade in information across borders; intellectual property and business law issues, including copyright of machine readable data and legislation regarding software production, distribution and use.
-speed of development allows too little time to access impact on fabric of the country
Of course much of this can be dealt with in the overall context of policy. Reference could also be made to the concept of the New World Information and Communications Order. (22) As regards forecasting trends a good example of the kind of technological star gazing, which should possibly be attempted for a group of developing countries is that reflected in the Information UK 2000 report which all looks at all the aspects of the information industry with a view to projecting likely future events.(23)
6. Prospects for library and information services(24)
6.1. New roles and services
There is promise of improved availability and access to information sources through national and international networks. The use of CD/ROM will allow rapid access to information within individual units. Staff should be able to concentrate on value added services and become more involved with the user and their problems and projects. The image of the service will be enhanced from improved and wider ranging services.
Libraries will become involved in the creation of non-bibliographic databases in addition to the customary catalogues. These new databases will compromise statistical, geographical, graphic and other data needed for scientific, planning and project implementation work.
Through electronic mail, facsimile and other technologies -as well as improved telecommunications infrastructures information services will be enabled to better provide for document delivery and access to remote databases and networks. In addition CD/ROM will allow for the greatly extended availability of information nationally and across regions especially in cooperative arrangements.
Electronic publishing can improve availability of foreign information. Desk-top publishing will greatly improve indigenous publication capacity.
Compatibility and standardisation of systems will advance in support of networks and sharing concepts. Common software packages and improved data exchange formats are spreading widely in the developing world.
6.2. Ensuring sustainable service
Factors contributing to the sustainability of information services in developing countries have been recently analysed. These are (25):-
-positive policy support for information
-use of a variety of methods and techniques to convince management of the value of information and its management
-management audit of information systems to ensure that requirements are specified and that systems are responding accordingly
-a pronounced user orientation is required for in the planning and design of products and services reflecting a response to user needs . There must be a constant interaction with users to constantly monitor their needs and to demonstrate to them time and again the usefulness of information
-marketing and promotion of information services and products to increase awareness and encourage greater use
-good management practice for efficient and effective operations of the system
-opportunities for participation in resource sharing programs and co-operative schemes
-training, development and continuing education of information professionals to be a continual process incorporating the need to enhance new skills and in particular the ability for information analysis, information repackaging and the application of information technologies
-database of local and national information
-positive attitudes leading to self-reliance, confidence building and high levels of professionalism
-effective use of technology through the judicious use of an appropriate mix of technologies suited to the local environment
Figure 4 illustrates a few of these factors as analysed in terms of their relative impact and the possibility that something can be done about them. Those that seem feasible to work on are marketing; interaction with users; planning and management and management attitudes. The most intractable high impact issues would be the budget and stability of the parent organisation. I imagine most of us would agree with this!
6.3. Ensuring successful policy implementation
Factors leading to success or failure in other countries are as follows(15) :-
1. Inappropriate designation or placement of the national focal point in the government structure
2. Absence of a formal overall national policy on information
3. Low priority assigned to information matters in general and the absence of a national plan of action and commitment of public funds to the plan
4. Weak cooperation amongst government agencies and ministries and a tendency to resist co-ordination
5. Misunderstanding of the function of the coordinating mechanism and inadequate budget and staffing for the focal point
6. Cooperation based on goodwill without a mechanism for coordination has been found ineffective
7. Coordination is difficult when effective ways and means to secure cooperation from all parties do not exist or are not applied.
8. Focal points that have given assistance in some form to components of the national information system have been more successful than those that have tried to centralise activities.
9. Coordination and policy making becomes more complex and complicated when the department in which the function is based is also entrusted with running an information service.
10. Information for decision making being inter-sectoral its gathering and channelling to top management is easier when conditions are created for effective horizontal cooperation among ministries and government agencies.
11. The trend is to place the coordinating mechanism in a government department responsible for policy making. The choice of a ministry which has no authority over other ministries limits effectiveness.
12. The presence of library and information development and training activities in educational institutions, research units and the private sector are essential for the development of sound stable national information systems as well as an information conscious society.
13. National efforts that have placed initial heavy stress on the hardware aspects of systems have encountered problems. Systems which have ignored technological development miss the advantages that this provides.
14. The coordinating mechanism must be staffed with dynamic, motivated, well-trained specialists who are given the necessary status, responsibilities, and salaries to ensure continuity and stability of the operation.
7. Prospects for Papua New Guinea
In addition to the already promulgated Public Service Information Technology Policy there have been recent plans and policy documents produced within Papua New Guinea with a view to improving the library infrastructure, which we believe to be the all very important base of that pyramid. Efforts have included the production of a "Library Development Plan" by Library Council(26) and a "Library Resource Sharing and Networking Plan" for the Commission for Higher Education.(27) There is policy formulation going on at the national level and also work is being done in the provinces. There is also the work going on in related fields such as the Literacy and Awareness Programme.
There are numerous projects in the social science domain prepared by PNG - APINESS - admittedly unfunded. At a recent meeting held in Sogeri a proposal for a South Pacific Development Information Network were accepted by participants form various libraries throughout the region. The University of the South Pacific has been participating widely in network development and it is Papua New Guinea that is tending to lag behind.
There have been considerable discussions as to how education and training in this area could be revamped and this should be discussed tomorrow. All of this has been done amounts to progress on paper only unless there is a will to improve on the issue. This will can be demonstrated by interest from groupings such as this, but overall the issue of information has to become one of concern to the Government. Issues and ideas must become apparent further up the pyramid, if this resource is going to be anything more than a "talent digged in the ground."
Much supporting work has been done but awareness will be the key to providing the structures and funds for advancing the cause.
1. A.Neelameghan. Papers for the "Information for development seminar - July 1-3 1992."" Department of Library and Information Studies, UPNG, 1992. [available for K10, post free]
2. V. Montviloff. National information policies Unesco, 1991
3. N. Stevens. "The history of information" Advances in librarianship, 14(1986), pp. 1-48.
4. F. Machlup. Knowledge: its creation, distribution, and economic significance Princeton University Press, 1980.
5. A. Kent. "The unsolvable problems" in A. Debons, ed. Information science : a search for identity Dekker, 1974.
6. E.G.Evans. "Implications of the new publishing for library schools" Drexel Library Quarterly, 20(1984), 87-101. quote from p.98.
7. Unesco. General Information Programme and UNISIST. [Information brochure, ?1984]
8. G.B.Davis. Management information systems McGraw-Hill, 1974.
9. pages 5-7 of reference 2.
10. S. Akhtar. National and information and informatics policies in Africa ; reports and proceedings of a regional seminar held in Addis Ababa, 28 November to 1st December 1988. Ottawa : IDRC, 1990.
11. R. Escarpit. The book revolution London : Harrap, 1966.
12. E.L. Eisenstein. The printing press as an agent of social change. Cambridge University Press, 1979.
13. P.F. Burton. Information technology and society London : Library Association, 1992. Table from page 65.
14. NATIS: National Information Systems - objectives for national and international action Paris : Unesco, 1975.
15. A. Neelameghan. National policy on information systems and services for Uganda: a proposal. undated typescript.
16. A. Neelameghan. "International and regional information systems and networks: examples of experiences in developing countries." This forms pages 119-147 of item 1.
17. M. Lundu. "Formulation and implementation of a National Information Policy (NIP) in the context of an African environment." Paper presented at the "Planning for library development Conference held at UPNG in September 1990.
18. A. Neelameghan. "Libraries and information services in developing countries : prospects and problems" Paper presented to the Past-Present-Future Conference, organised by the Department of Library and Information Studies, July 6-8 1992.
19. Quote from page 21-22 of reference 17.
20. See p.23 and 46-51 of reference 13.
21. Pages 14-15 of reference 18 also item 16 in the bibliography of that paper.
22. See chapter 4 of reference 13.
23. J. Martyn, P. Vickers, M. Feeney. Information UK 2000 London: Bowker-Saur, 1990.
24. Pages 12-14 of reference 18.
25. S.S.Agha. Sustainability of information systems in developing countries: an appraisal and suggested courses of -- action. Ottawa : IDRC, 1992.
26. D.E.K. Wijasuriya. A library development plan for Papua New Guinea. Library Council of Papua New Guinea, 1991.
27.H.W. Lee. Library development, resource sharing, and networking among higher education institutions in Papua New Guinea: final report and recommendations. Prepared for Commission for Higher Education, 1991.
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